When getting coffee, the people at Starbucks ask, “Do you want to leave room for sugar and cream?” Do I need to leave space if I just add sugar?

Question answered by Catherine Riddle, PhD, Radiochemist, Idaho National Laboratory The chemistry of coffee is complex to start with so adding sugar, milk or both makes it even more so. There are many systems at work in a cup of coffee including density, inter-molecular spacing, temperature and concentration. Believe it or not, there is a…

Is coal a sedimentary rock?

Answered by Kurt Edwards, Geologist and GIS Analyst, INL ESER Program he short answer is yes, coal is a sedimentary rock. Coal is formed mainly from plant material that accumulates in a swampy environment. These plants that become coal, lived before and during the time of the dinosaurs. When the plants died they would sink…

I read an OpEd from a rancher in Wyoming lamenting the decline of mule deer populations of his lifetime. Are there similar decreases in mule deer populations in Idaho

Question Answered by Gregg Losinski, Environmental Science Educator Mule deer are an icon of the West.  Unlike other members of the deer family such as elk and moose, mule deer distribution was always limited to the wide open spaces of the Intermountain West.  Over the past decades, a succession of adverse factors has resulted in…